The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015. "Global Goals for Sustainable Development" is another name used.
The goals are broad and somewhat interdependent, yet each has a separate list of targets to achieve. Achieving all 169 targets would signal accomplishing all 17 goals. The SDGs cover social and economic development issues including poverty, hunger, health, education, climate change, gender equality, water, sanitation, energy, urbanization, environment and social justice.
The formal name for the SDGs is: "Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development." That has been shortened to "2030 Agenda." The goals were developed to succeed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which ended in 2015. Unlike the MDGs, the SDG framework does not distinguish between "developed" and "developing" nations. Instead, the goals apply to all countries. Paragraph 54 of United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/70/1 of 25 September 2015 contains the goals and targets. The UN-led process involved its 193 Member States and global civil society.
The resolution is a broad intergovernmental agreement that acts as the Post-2015 Development Agenda. The SDGs build on the principles agreed upon in Resolution A/RES/66/288, entitled "The Future We Want". This was a non-binding document released as a result of Rio+20 Conference held in 2012. Implementation as of 2016 is described as "Localizing the SDGs" to highlight the role of local institutions and local actors.
Regional efforts included agreements like the Baltic 2030 Action Plan and another similar agreement called NITI Aayog was developed for India. Some remain pessimistic about the potential for achieving the SDGs, especially because of estimates of the cost of achieving all 17.
However, progress had been reported by 2018. For example, fewer African children under the age of 5 are suffering from stunting and wasting. However, the same study concluded that it's unlikely there will be an end malnutrition by 2030.